CJD in the USA Jan 4, 2004 21:53:47 GMT -5
Post by Big Bunny on Jan 4, 2004 21:53:47 GMT -5
There is a tremendous amount that is unknown about prion diseases -- both human and animal. For example, prions have been found in the urine and blood of human victims of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease.
Just this week a patient in Britain died from the human form of Mad Cow disease (vCJD) following a blood transfusion.
A recent Swiss report warns hospitals about potential liability due to the high infectivity risks from surgery on victims suffering from the human form of mad cow - vCJD and recommends use of disposal surgical equipment.
""If vCJD patent undergoes surgery, infectious prions may remain on surgical instruments . . . normal methods of disinfection do not work."
The US EPA has already expressed concern about prions getting into POTWs (and from there into the sewage sludge) :
EPA eyes wildlife's lab practices
Concern centers on whether CWD prions can get into the water
By Todd Hartman, Rocky Mountain News
September 5, 2002
The EPA is scrutinizing laboratory practices at the Colorado Division of Wildlife, worried that the infectious agents believed to cause chronic wasting disease could wash into public sewers and underground septic tanks.
Water regulators with the Environmental Protection Agency could require wildlife officials to alter plumbing at division laboratories in Fort Collins, Craig and elsewhere to ensure that the persistent protein - called a prion - doesn't accumulate in water supplies.
TWO sewage treatment plant operators have already expressed concern about prions getting in their sewage sludge:
JUNE 11, 2002 - THE CAPITAL TIMES - MADISON, WISCONSIN - BY BILL NOVAK - "DEER ESTIMATE UP TO 25,000 IN KILLING ZONE -- CARCASS REMOVAL STILL A PROBLEM"
"We'd like to keep the deer as close to home as possible," Brusca said. ""We'd like to keep the deer as close to home as possible," Brusca said. "Right now, the two options we have are landfills and rendering The plants have indicated they are not willing to take deer from the eradication zone." plants.
But Jon Schellpfeffer, chief engineer for the Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District, told the task force the district would be leery taking in leachate from the landfill's pipes if there was any chance at all it contained prions.
Schellpfeffer said the two byproducts from the treatment plant are clean water and a condensed biologic solid that's sold to farmers to recycle as fertilizer on their fields. ("CONDENSED BIOLOGIC SOLID" - A new euphemism for sewage sludge !! )
"The risks are probably low, but is there anything that could jeopardize our re-use program?," Schellpfeffer said. "There's an awful lot of unanswered questions at this point." ("RE-USE PROGRAM" - A EUPHEMISM FOR LANDSPREADING SEWAGE SLUDGE !!)
SEPTEMBER 8, 2002: leachate is spread on farm fields !!
www.jsonline.com/news/state/sep02/71764.asp MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN
"Dane County's concern was that leachate - polluted water that percolates through layers and layers of landfill - could contain prions. Leachate is normally sent to wastewater treatment plants and then spread on farm fields.
"If you can't find a way to get rid of leachate, you are out of the landfill business," said Dane County Supervisor Brett Hulsey, a member of a county ad hoc committee on deer disposal and landfills."
A Wisconsin Risk Assessment confirms that hydrophobic prions are partitioned to the sewage sludge:
PAGE 4: "Land application of municipal sludge that potentially contains CWD PrP-res may result in the presence of CWD PrP-res in surface soils."
Once that leachate (from landfill) reaches the wastewater treatment plant the suspended solids will be separated from the effluent. Those suspended solids will then be termed "sludge" or biosolids.
Pages 6-7: "Furthermore, the incorporation of sludge into the 9 inch plow layer, which is standard for land application practices, would provide sufficient dilution within the soil."
NOT TRUE - DAIRY PASTURES, HAY FIELDS AND GRAZING LANDS ARE TRADITIONALLY TOP-DRESSED -- THE SLUDGE IS NOT INCORPORATED . . . . . .
All things considered, I sincerely hope that none of you muck around in composting abattoir wastes.
Helane Shields, Alton, NH 03809
Sludge Researcher since 1996